A balanced diet contributes an adequate nutrients to the individual needs of each person to maintain health and to meet the energy demands of the body.
The basis of a balanced diet are based on an input of calories, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, fiber and water depending on the age, sex, stage of development, the situation of the body, etc. to avoid situations of malnutrition both excess and deficiency.
The development of balanced diet can be facilitated by grouping foods according to their nutritional value, since this the intake of calories and nutrients, can be calculated accurately.Thus, foods have been classified into the following 4 basic groups such as group of dairy products, meat group, group of fruits and vegetables and bread group and cereals.
How to get a balanced diet?
Milk group. This group not only the milk of different origin but its derivatives such as cheese, yogurt, etc. These foods have a high digestibility and nutritional value lies in the presence of high-quality protein and included lactose, as well as acceptable levels of some minerals (calcium, phosphorous.) and vitamin B complex.
Meat Group. Consists of various foods, but with equivalent nutritional value. This group includes meat, fish of different origin, eggs, legumes and nuts the digestibility varies between 70-100%. Foods in this group provide mainly proteins and lipids with varying degrees of saturation. They also contain certain minerals such as iron, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamins B.
Group fruits and vegetables. Their nutritive value is mainly attributed to the contribution of water-soluble vitamins, carotene precursors of vitamin A and minerals like iron, calcium, magnesium. The digestibility varies between 50 and 100% due to the amount of fiber held.
Bread and cereal group. Contains abundant carbohydrates, are used as supply of calories to the diet. The nutritional value is also complemented by the presence of minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and vitamins B. The digestibility is variable, depending on non-degradable material.
The development of a balanced diet should consider an appropriate distribution of energy, structural and regulatory nutrients. The varied diets allow secure the intake of all nutrients provided and must individually adjust the calories needed depending on the activity. Another aspect to take into account individual variations are possible by genetic, environmental components.
The preparation of the diet through the basic food groups, plus food use of diverse origin and nature, ensures the supply of all nutrients in appropriate for different needs and situations physiological quantities age group, sex, physical activity.
In general you must meet the following objectives.
- Provide an amount of energy nutrients (calories) that is sufficient to carry the metabolic processes and physical work necessary.
- Supply sufficient nutrients regeneration and regulatory functions (proteins, minerals, vitamins.)
- That each nutrient amounts are balanced with the rest.
- Protein should not be less than 15% of total caloric intake. Should be protein of high biological value.
- Carbohydrates provide at least 50-60% of total calories.
- Lipids not be more than 30% of total caloric intake.
- The amount of vegetable fiber in the diet should never be below 22 g / day. Added a new recommendation in the sense that the fiber must not be provided constituted by insoluble fiber (cellulose), but 50% of the total soluble fiber correspond to (with pectins).
- It is advisable not to exceed the amount of salt in 3 g / day to prevent excessive sodium intake, which could lead to kidney and hypertension overload. Also avoid foods high in salt. These are most processed foods and canned ready meals.
- If we consume alcoholic beverages should do so in moderation.
10-20% of the total caloric content.
0.8-1 g / kg body weight (adult).
|Meat and Fish.
Milk and dairy products.
|50-60% of total caloric.
polysaccharides: Oligosaccharides (4: 1).
more than 120 g / day is advised.
|Cereals and bread.
Fruits and vegetables.
Milk and dairy products.
|LIPID…||30-40% of total caloric content.
10% saturated fatty A.
10% monounsaturated fatty A.
10% polyunsaturated fatty A.
Less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day.
2-6% linoleic acid.
|Oils and margarines.
Meat and fish.
Milk and dairy.
|ENERGY…||Needs based on activity, function, age, sex.||Carbohydrate (4 kcal / g)
Protein (4 kcal / g)
Lipids (9kcal / g)
|IRON…||Varying food availability depending on heme and other dietary components.||Meat (liver).
|CALCIUM…||Use according of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and bone resorption.||Milk and dairy products.|
|IODINE…||Deficiencies in endemic areas (goiter).||Fish.
|VITAMIN A…||Soluble vitamin.||Colored vegetables.
|VITAMIN B1…||Water-soluble vitamin needs related to energy metabolism (0.5 mg / 1000 kcal).||Carnes
|VITAMIN B2…||Water-soluble vitamin needs related to energy metabolism (0.6 mg / 1000 kcal).||Milk.
|VITAMIN B3…||Water-soluble vitamin needs related to energy metabolism (6.6 mg / 1000 kcal).||Meat.
|VITAMIN B6…||Water-soluble vitamin is involved in the metabolism.||Meat (liver).
Cereals and vegetables.
|VITAMIN B12…||Soluble vitamin use in the action of intrinsic factor in gastric mucosa.||Meat.
Milk and dairy products.
|VITAMIN C…||Water-soluble vitamin.||Fruits and vegetables.|
|VITAMIN D…||Fat-soluble vitamin.
Your metabolism is related to sun exposure.
|Milk and dairy products.|
|VITAMIN E…||Soluble vitamin.||Vegetable oils.|